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Seebeck voltage is characteristically between millivolts at a degree centigrade temperature differential. The reduced barriers nature of the semiconductor is further supported by the resistance of final shaped crystal boule product 2 and is determined by measuring the voltage across a 2-inch separation along the boule product 2 when 1 amp DC is passed along the axis of the boule 2. The resistance calculated from voltage measurement across a 2 inch separation on the boule product 2 is less than 0.

The resistance of each mil wafer is calculated with the above data to be less than 0. Production of uniform wafers is obtained using a wafer cutting assembly 10 shown in FIG. The boule product 2 or a portion of it is mounted to a motor-driven slide 11 with a tilt of the upper portion toward cathode cutting wires Cutting wires 12 form a single continuous line. Cutting wires 12 are separated by about 45 mils and held in alignment by threads of carriage bolts The cutting wires 12 are made of brass of about 10 mils diameter.

In a preferred embodiment portions of wires make up a cutting head The cutting wires 12 are connected to the cathode of a power supply 15 and the anode is connected to the bottom of the boule product.

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When the power supply is turned on it produces anodic corrosion as the boule moves slowly through the cutting wires 12 while amps traverse through the boule product 2 to the cutting wires The boule product 2 is moved by force from a motor 16 drawing a pull wire 17 from capstan 18 between guides The boule product 2 and cutting wires 12 set are immersed in deionized water contained in vessel 20 during the anodic corrosion process.

Evolution of gas bubbles aids in removing dissolved material from the boule product. N-type crystalline semiconductor wafer 28 is juxtaposed with cold fin 21 , which has a layer of solder paste in the region where the n-type semiconductor wafer 28 bonds to cold fin Hot fin 29 has layers of solder paste in the regions that bond to n-type semiconductor wafer 28 and p-type semiconductor wafer P-type semiconductor wafer 30 bonds with solder paste to one side of the wedge A completed thermoelectric ring preferably includes sixty-two 62 standard coupons The number of standard coupons 34 included in a thermoelectric ring can vary depending on the operating voltage desired.

The Seebeck voltage also effects voltage production for a given temperature differential between hot fins 29 and cold fins Energy conversion in the thermoelectric generator device is proportional to the temperature difference between adjacent hot fins and cold fins. As seen in FIG. Three pin fins 22 are not displace while three pin fins 23 are displace away from wafer contact surface The wafer contact surface 24 is undisturbed allowing good contact with the wafers.

A resulting benefit is to increase the surface area for cooling by a factor of 2. This temperature is near the combustion temperature of propane and other common fuels. Special fin 25 is soldered to a coupon from which the original cold fin and its adjacent n-type semiconductor wafer 28 had been removed. The added cold fin with takeoffs and adjacent new n-type semiconductor wafer 28 is soldered to the hot fin Hot fin 29 has next to it a p-type semiconductor wafer 30 and wedge Power takeoffs 26 and 27 form a complementary set designed to physically mate to another modified coupon with takeoffs that match up to the regions of contact to MOSfet switch banks.

Power takeoff 33 is made up of an additional cold fin 35 to which is brazed a straight power takeoff laminate 36 together with a twisted power takeoff laminate The flat additional cold fin 35 allows a tight junction with wedge 31 of standard coupon During assembly the additional cold fin 35 with attached brazed laminate straight takeoff 36 and twisted laminated takeoff 37 is added to the ring adjacent to a standard coupon It is assembled by nesting power takeoffs 27 and In the assembled form it can be seen that the combined takeoffs produce two single turn current loops one above the other.

When current is flowing in the ring and MOSfet switch banks are closed, current in the loop of the twisted takeoff 27 - 37 flows in an opposite direction to that of the straight power takeoff 26 - An opening exists at the end of current loops 27 - 37 and 26 - 36 to which the MOSfet switch banks are solder connected. Assembly is made easier by offsetting the attachment site of MOSfet switch banks and aligning the attachment site of the MOSfet switch banks in a direction away from the thermoelectric ring of standard coupons Insulation 39 is used to electrically isolate the additional cold fin 35 from modified coupon 32 shown in FIG.

Electrical insulation is also placed between laminate takeoffs 26 - 36 and 27 - 37 as well as between strips of the laminate. Each strip of the laminate is insulated except at the ends where they are all brazed in one instance to the cold fin and in another instance to the MOSfet switch bank.

In a preferred embodiment strips of the laminate are brazed together at the non-insulated ends prior to being brazed to a cold fin and prior to being soldered to the MOSfet switch bank. Alternatively, the insulating material can be a thin layer of room-temperature vulcanizing rubber coated with small zirconium or other ceramic beads.

Other kinds of beads of same particle size can also be used.

An example of a thermoelectric ring 40 prior to soldering is shown in FIG. It is composed of n-type semiconductor wafers 28 , hot fins 29 , p-type semiconductor wafers 30 and wedges 31 , and cold fins The cold fins 21 depicted in FIG. Also shown are the power takeoffs of the current loops to be connected to switch banks. Also shown in FIG. In a preferred embodiment to physically balance the thermoelectric ring assembly, a shortened cold fin 41 is inserted in to the thermoelectric ring degrees across from the additional cold fin Also shown is a power takeoff upconverter 45 with secondary coils 46 , E-core 47 and MOSfet switch banks 48 and Controller printed circuit board 50 , not shown in FIG.

The high frequency AC is converted back to DC voltage by bridge rectifiers on controller printed circuit board The output voltage is 40 times higher than voltage produced by the bonded thermoelectric ring 42 at the switch banks 48 and 49 using upconverter transformer 45 comprising the single turn loops 26 - 36 and 27 - 37 , a pair of bi-filar turn secondary coils 46 magnetically coupled through an E-core 47 and bridge rectifiers on controller board Secondary power for the printed circuit controller board is delivered by ribbon cable DIP plug This cable delivers 18 volt AC for 4 or more independent power supplies each converted to DC using a bridge rectifier on the controller board 50 of FIG.

Power to the auto-start circuit not shown in FIG. Two ribbon cables shown in FIG. One cable connects switch banks 48 - 49 to the printed circuit controller board 50 with ribbon cable DIP plug The other ribbon cable delivers power through DIP plug 55 to a controller board from four, 5 turn secondary, windings contained in secondary winding 46 around the center stem of E-core The ring 40 , shown in cross-section as a vertical cold fin and horizontal hot fin, is mounted within the case supported by an insulator 62 below the cold fins Power takeoff laminates 26 - 27 conduct current to the upconverter The control operations are made using the components of the printed circuit controller board Controller board 50 drives MOSfet switch banks 48 and Cold air being push by blower 60 cools the controller board 50 , and in addition cold fins 21 and exits the distinct orifice Legs 64 below the case 59 hold the case off the ground.

Fuel duct 65 , a distinct orifice, and fuel venturi nozzle 66 provide fuel to the lower combustion bowl Fuel is combusted just below the hot fins due to stimulated catalytic effect of a burner screen Preferably the screen is made of perforated ceramic but a metal screen can be used as well.

Efficient ignition of fuel is provided by non-combustible plug 69 using a resistance-heated igniter 70 or spark igniter Ignition plug 69 is positioned at the center of the ring 40 so as to force combustion gas over the hot fins Combusted gas exits through an exhaust port distinctive orifice 72 in the insulated upper burner bowl Insulation is shaded.

This version of the semiconductor device can also be use to burn liquid fuels by replacing the venturi gas inlet nozzle 66 with an atomizing fixture such as a fuel injector.

In a preferred embodiment the insulated upper burner bowl is a double bowl with insulation in between each bowl. In a preferred embodiment non-combustible plug 69 is made of ceramic material and shaped so as to allow the center portion of the resistance-heated igniter 70 to occupy the open center of the ring and side portion to rest upon the end of the hot fins 29 thereby forcing hot air and combusted gases through the hot fins.

Resistance heater 70 can be replaced by a spark igniter In another preferred embodiment a temperature sensor is added to the plug The temperature sensor controls a fuel valve to cut off fuel in the event that the temperature exceeds a pre-set value. This value is set below the melting point of the n-type or p-type semiconductor material. In another preferred embodiment cold fins are placed in a non-metallic U-shaped ring-shaped tray.

The tray is filled with water preferably by an automated filling system with controls to prevent overflow. The height of the walls of the U-shaped tray and the width of the tray are adjusted with regard to the air flow of blower 60 so as to optimize overall cooling efficiency. Electrical energy production is improved by the evaporative cooling effect on the cold fins as air from blower 60 passes over water in the U-shaped tray to exit distinctive orifice In another preferred embodiment the U-shaped tray is fitted on the inside wall with a plurality of spray nozzles facing the cold fins.

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Water is pumped from the tray through the nozzles and the height of the outside wall of the ring is set with respect to the location of the nozzles so as to have the outside wall catch excess directed spray. In a preferred embodiment the height of water in the tray is controlled electronically or by a float mechanism. A versatile configuration of the thermoelectric generator device 74 is shown in FIG.

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This hot air can be derived from externally combusted sources, direct solar derived heat or solar energy stored in hot solids, preferably porcelain fragments. Hot air from porcelain fragments in heat storage, not shown, enters the lower combustion bowl 67 through distinct orifice insulated pipe Hot air passes hot fins 29 and exits through insulated upper bowl 75 then through insulated exhaust pipe distinct orifice Plug 69 is configured as a temperature sensor with temperature sensor 77 with sensor output lines The plug forces air around hot fins Distinct orifice 63 allows cooling air driven by blower 60 to exit.

Features blower 60 , motor 61 , power takeoff laminates 26 and 27 , upconverter 45 , MOSfet switch banks 48 and 49 and controller board 50 are the same as in the fuel burning versions of the thermoelectric generator device 58 of FIG. This version is also suitable for utilizing heat from steam sources.

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This can be accomplished by providing a heat exchanger between the source of steam and the re-circulating air line through insulated pipe 65 of this version of the thermoelectric generator device. As with the fuel burning version of the thermoelectric generator device 58 of FIG. When the thermoelectric generator ring 40 is first heated a small voltage appears across the ring but no current flows because the MOSfet switch banks are normally open. Low impedance NPN oscillator circuits 80 can start at 0. This oscillator 80 causes current to flow alternately in primary windings 81 and The resulting power output of secondary coil 83 powers the bridge 84 to deliver DC voltage to low dropout DC regulator This component 79 eliminates the need at startup for a special battery to provide power to the controller board.

This invention is especially suited to the conversion of solar energy to electricity. Any of several means to collect solar energy can be used such as parabolic trough, a solar tracking funnel, a solar tacking parabolic dish, or a folded lens. The illustrated version has about mirrors Mirror size is the same as the target Mirrors 91 are individually mounted on an adjustable ball joint not shown to allow adjustment of each mirror so incoming sun reflects on target.

A trailer ball-hitch 93 shown in FIGS. When the mirror array is moved to the horizontal position a laser plum-bob is used to shine downward on each mirror 91 so that each can be aligned to cast the laser beam on to the target Each mirror is then secured. After all mirrors are aligned the array is then returned to the solar tracking position. This form of solar collection allows easy cleaning, alignment and replacement of mirrors. In severe weather, such as during a hailstorm or high winds, the array is protected by lowering it to a horizontal position and the mirrors then covered with plywood storm panels or other sturdy material.

The target 92 is a stainless steel, spiraled tube with insulator 94 on the sun side. Hot air passes from a heat store, not shown, through duct 95 forced by blower, not shown, through insulated receiver target 92 exiting through insulated line 96 returning then back to the heat storage. The number of mirrors and the size of the target are adjusted to keep the temperature of the target below its melting temperature.

All transfer tubing and the blower are heavily insulated to prevent conductive and irradiative heat loss. The blower is a high temperature resistant type.


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In a preferred embodiment the heat store is made up of porcelain fragments or spheres. The porcelain fragments are contained in 55 gallon stainless steel barrels insulated with one or more low heat conductive materials such as a ceramic fiber blanket made of alumina-silia fiber bonded with a resin. This material stands up to temperatures of degrees C. Similar insulating material can also be used. The stainless steel barrels can be replaced by any of a variety of high temperature air tight metal heat store or any of a variety of ceramic heat stores.

Another preferred embodiment for solar energy collection and storage is shown in FIG. An integrated energy system 98 combines a parabolic solar collector 99 on a gun mount, heavily insulated heat energy store , a hot air thermoelectric generator device 74 , electrical energy output unit and a set of batteries Six volt car batteries can supply 3.

This feature allows the thermoelectric generator device 74 to operate at minimum electrical output and thereby conserve heat. It also reduces the occurrence of light dimming when high power demand appliances come on-line. As needed the thermoelectric generator device charges the batteries The batteries in series are connected through an inverter to the AC thermoelectric generator bus connecting thermoelectric generator device 74 to electric energy output unit to match and support the AC voltage at a predetermined level and assume part of the load as needed.

Thermoelectric generator devices can be used in a wide variety of applications. For example a set of components in FIG. An automobile can be powered using a fuel burning three phase thermoelectric generator device 58 by removing the old engine and transmission and adding a single electric motor connected directly to a special drive shaft The speed of the motor resides with a standard foot pedal that now controls the frequency of the electrical output of thermoelectric generator device Motor and therefor wheel direction is controlled by a standard car shifter modified to cause phase shift for forward, neutral and reverse automobile's direction.

Stored heat alone can be use to power a conveyance as shown in FIG.

Heat stored in a porcelain fragment heat store can be transferred to thermoelectric generator device 74 using a blower then exhaust heat returned to heat store in well insulated air line A significant feature of this system is the energy saving in wheel braking. This is done by shunting the energy in the armature of the electric motor to resistive heater in the porcelain fragment heat store. A control box senses over-voltage on the motor power bus indicating braking with the automobile's hydraulic brake system and causes the shunting of the excess energy to the resistive heater element The car then brakes in a forceful and safe manner controlled by control box and the automobile's normal brake system.

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